The assimilation of punya and paap, the two types of karmic matter, by the soul, results in a mutual mixture, like that of milk and water and is called bandha. It is without a beginning from the perspective of an unbroken continuity, but has a beginning from the perspective of the bondage of particular karmas at different times. Just as we cannot decide whether the hen came first or the chicken, in the same way we cannot decide whether the jiva came first or the 'karma', nor can we decide when the bondage started. The jiva does not exist in the cosmos without karma, since without it, it attains moksha. Karma's existence on its own is also not possible since the jiva attracts karma.
The assimilation of karma is of four types:
i) Pradesh (mass or quantity)
ii) Prakriti (nature or quality)
iii) Sthiti (duration)
iv) Anubhag (intensity)
The quantity of accumulation of karmic particles with the soul is known as pradesh bandha.
The specific nature of karmic matter is called prakriti. It constitutes the nature of bondage. The nature of gyanavarniya and darshanavarniya karmas is to obscure gyana and darshan respectively. Vedniya karma produces happiness or misery, mohaniya karma produces illusion, ayusya karma determines the span of a particular life, while nama karma constitute the personality, and the structure of a body. Gotra karma causes birth in a high or low family and antarya karma hinders the basic characteristics of the soul.
Sub-types of the karmas are as follows:
1) Gyanavarniya Karma has five sub types:
a) Mati gyanavarna obscures knowledge obtained through the sense organs and mind.
b) Shrut gyanavarna obscures knowledge by intuition
c) Avadhi gyanavarna obscures extra sensory knowledge.
d) Manhaparyava gyanavarna obscures the capacity of mind- reading
e) Keval gyanavarna obscures omniscience/perfect knowledge
2) Darshanavarniya Karma has nine sub-types:
a) Chaksu darshanavarniya obscures visual experience.
b) Achaksu darshanavarniya obscures experience obtained through the sense organs other than the eyes.
c) Avadhi darshanavarniya obscures experience obtained before the knowledge of clairvoyance.
d) Keval darshanavarniya veils the omniscient experience.
e) Nidra is responsible for making a person sleepy.
f) Nidra- Nidra results in a kind of sound sleep.
g) Prachla results in a kind of sleep where one is subjected to sleep even while sitting or standing.
h) Prachla-prachla results in a kind of sound sleep which one encounters even while walking.
i) Styanardhi results in a deep sleep where activity is possible even while sleeping.
3) Vedniya Karma has two sub-types:
a) Satavedniya is responsible for the sensation of pleasure.
b) Astavedniya is responsible for the sensation of pain.
4) Mohaniya Karma has two sub-types:
a) Darshan mohaniya restricts one from obtaining right faith.
b) Charitra mohaniya affects the conduct of a person.
5) Ayusya Karma has four types:
a) Narakayusya determines the life span of hellish beings.
b)Tiryanchayusya determines the life span in species like animals and birds.
c) Manusyayusya determines the life span of human beings.
d) Devayusya determines the life span of those who abodes in heaven.
6) Nama Karma has two sub-types:
a) Shubha nama is the assimilation of auspicious karmic matter. It results in fame and name, a good body etc.
b) Ashubha nama is an inauspicious karma. It results in
defamation, and unhealthy body etc.
7) Gotra Karma has two sub-types:
a) Uchhagotra karma leads to a higher status for an individual in the family and society.
b) Nichagotra karma leads to a lower status for an individual in the family and society.
8) Antaraya Karma has five sub-types:
a) Dana antaraya karma hinders inclination for charity.
b) Labha antaraya karma due to the rise of this karma, a person is deprived of profits.
c) Bogantaraya karma deprives one from the benefit of luxuries.
d) Upabhogantaraya karma prevents the enjoyment of materialistic pleasure.
e) Viryantaraya karma prevents a person from performing acts of strength and stemina.
The duration of the bondage of karma with the soul is called sthiti bandha. No karma is without a beginning or an end. Each karma has its own duration. For instance, the maximum duration of the gyanavaraniya, darshanavaraniya, vedaniya, antaraya is thirty kota koti sagaropama, mohaniya karma is seventy kota koti sagaropama, nama and gotra karma is twenty; ayusya karma is thirty-three sagaropama.
iv) Anubhaga: is the intensity of fruition. It is of two types:
a) Tivra anubhaga: where the intensity of fruition is strong.
b) Mandaanubhaga: where the intensity of fruition is mild.
The intensity of fruition of karma depends on the intensity of the passion at the time of karmic bondage. That which is caused by a strong passion is strong and that caused by mild passion is mild. Karma is a material entity, but just as in the case of a wholesome or unwholesome diet, there is no question of inherent absurdity in the soul's attainment of the resultant fruit through it. The stronger the passion, the greater is the period of duration and intensity of fruition of karma.
The philosophical literature on karma theory offers the analogy of a sweet (modaka) with its varied medicinal properties. A sweet that may be used for curing diseases of the phlegm and intestinal disorders. Similarly, some types of karma are responsible for obscuring knowledge, others for obscuring intuition etc.
Secondly, as some sweets last for a day, while some others last for a week and some loose their efficiency after a while. Similarly the duration of karmic particles that affect the soul differ.
Thirdly, as some modaka are sweeter than others, in the same way the effect of karmas also differ in their intensity.
Just as a sweet may be half or full in size, similar description can be given about the karmic particles accumulated by soul.
Bandha can also be classified into two types:
1) Shub bandha causes the inflow of benevolent karma.
2) Ashubha bandha causes the inflow of malevolent karma.
Violence, stealing, incontinence, etc. are the inauspicious activities of the body. Lying, using harsh words, back-biting etc are inauspicious activity of speech. Lust, animosity and envy cause the inflow of inauspicious karma through mind. The opposite kind of activities cause the inflow of auspicious karma. The general effect of benign activity is pleasure and evil activity is pain.
In short, these are the two main causes of karmic bondage kasaya i.e. passion and yoga i.e. activities of body, speech and mind. Moreover, passion results in stithi and anubhag bandh, while the later results to prakriti and pradesh bandha.
Bandh can be divided in the following two types as well:
a) Samparayika bandha :
Bondage due to passions are termed samparayika bandha. Here the duration and intensity of bondage is more rather than less. This bondage lasts up to the tenth gunasthan (spiritual stage) because passion works up to the 10th stage.
b) Iryapathika bandha :
The bondage which lasts for a minimum period i.e. three units of time, is called iryapathika bandha. This bondage takes place when souls are free from passions i.e. after the 10th gunasthan.
The bondage of merit depends on auspicious activity. It has a dual role - shedding off karma's as well as the bondage of merits. The bondage of meritorious and demeritorious karmas is a hindrance in attaining emancipation. Hence an ascetic will not perform auspicious activities with the purpose of acquiring punya, the fruition of which leads to materialistic pleasure and happiness
According to Jain philosophy, one achieves liberation after the complete destruction of punya and paap. The question arises here: "What is the difference between bandha (bondage) punya (merit) and paap (demerit)?" The state of non-emergence and non-frutation of auspicious and inauspicious karmic material (that is merit and demerit qua substance), which are not capable of producing their effects is called bandha. When the karmic material emerges into a state of activity, capable of producing its effects (that is merit, demerit qua function) they are called punya and papa.
So long as the soul is not liberated, it gathers new karma each moment. Just as water co-exists with milk, karma is mixed with the soul until nirvana.